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FNSS Curriculum Integration Project Click here to download this lesson.
Cammy Coughlin (MS-Word format.)

Grade: 6
Lesson 3: Literature and Stereotyping
Time: 80 minutes or 2 x 40 minutes

Topic: Recognizing stereotyping in literature.

Rationale: First Nations people are stereotyped by the media, books, movies. This curriculum will promote an understanding of First Nations among all students. It will also contribute to Aboriginal students' sense of belonging in the public school system.


Materials and Resources

  • Teachers will need to pull a number of books from the library that have been shown to depict Aboriginal people in stereotypical ways, ie. wearing a headdress, carrying a tomahawk, etc.
  • Lesson 3: Stereotyping in Literature worksheet
  • Optional: a test entitled: The Media's Portrayal of First Nations People to evaluate the concepts presented in this and the last two - five lesson's (an answer key is included)

Main concepts

  • The students will see, firsthand, where many children begin to learn their stereotypes about First Nations people - in their own classrooms and school library. Students will understand that the non-Native society, through literature, has portrayed Native people in certain stereotypical ways that influence the readers from a very young age.

Intended Learning Outcomes

  • Identify and clarify a problem, issue, or inquiry
  • Research information using print sources
  • Evaluate the credibility and reliability of various sources
  • Organize information from a variety of sources into a structured presentation using more than one form of presentation
  • Evaluate mass media stereotypes of cultural groups

Planned Learning Activity
Introduction

  • Have students volunteer to review what they have learned so far in this mini-unit: what stereotyping is and how it can lead to discrimination, how stereotyping can hurt First Nations people, and how newspapers can stereotype Aboriginal people, and influence society.
  • Generate from students where stereotypes come from: television, movies, comics, newspapers, magazines, books, games and toys, and parents and peers.
  • Let students know that in today's lesson they will be looking at various books from their own library, where they can see First Nations people being portrayed in stereotypical ways.

Body

  • Explain to students that it is likely that at a very young age, they were exposed to stereotypes of First Nations people. This exposure came through books and various literature that parents may have bought, or borrowed from the school or regional libraries. Illustrations or comments in books fosters stereotypic thinking in young children, and this can carry on through adulthood.
  • Show the students the amount of books that you found in your very own library where there are clear stereotypes of Native people.
  • Have students work in groups of four. Hand out a few books per group, and the worksheet: Lesson 3: Stereotyping in Literature
  • Let students know that their task is to find the stereotypes in each book and record the following information (see worksheet): the title of the book, the copyright date, page number, type of book, and the context in which the stereotype was found. They are not to share their information with any other groups, as those groups need to meet their own challenge without assistance. Students should aim to record information from four books.
  • A second challenge (if time allowed) would be for students to find other stereotypes within the book: gender defined roles, professions, other race stereotypes, etc.
  • When students have finished with their set of books, they should pass them on and obtain new books from other groups.
  • Once all books have been analyzed, ask the students if they have found any commonalties among the books? Ask some students to share from a book that is at their group.
  • Pose the question: Why is it harmful to stereotype First Nations people in the ways that you have seen today? Hopefully the students will share that if young people are raised seeing Native people sporting tomahawks, wearing sacred headdresses and feathers, living in teepees, "scalping" people, wearing "war paint," etc., the non-Native community might think that they are still this way - people to avoid, scary people, fighters, etc. Explain to the students that these images are those created by non-Native people and obviously are not authentic representations of Native people.

Closure

  • Review with students perhaps how some children, perhaps even themselves, are influenced at a young age about First Nations people. The mass media, comics, literature, games, and other people help to influence how they think about Native people.
  • Have students hand in their worksheet: Lesson 3: Stereotyping in Literature. At this time you may choose to hand out the test: The Media's Portrayal of First Nations People for further evaluation.

Assessment/Evaluation

  • Lesson 3: Stereotyping in Literature worksheet
  • Optional test: The Media's Portrayal of First Nations People

Extensions

  • For the gifted/enriched students: Students can write a report on what they have learned in the last three (to six) lessons. They can present their report to the class. Perhaps they can make posters to represent their knowledge. Students can also investigate other stereotypes used that may offend Native people: ie., sports teams that use questionable illustrations and names.
  • For the learning disabled students: Limit the writing these students need to do for this lesson, and have them look for the illustrations in the books instead. The students can explain to the class the context of the picture within the book.

Other Integration Opportunities

  • Language Arts/Visual Arts: the student can make their own alphabet book that have appropriate illustrations and words that are respectful to the First Nations culture
  • Career and Personal Planning: invite First Nations role models into the classroom so that the students have the opportunity to see and hear of their profession or their talents. Contact your local First Nations Department in your school district for a list of people who will come into the school for this purpose.

Resources Used and Supplementary Materials Available

  1. Racism and Sexism Resource Center for Educators, Unlearning "Indian" Stereotypes: A teaching unit for elementary teachers and children's librarians. USA. 1981.

Picture books that may be found in your school or local regional library

  1. Adler, Bill. World's Worst Riddles and Jokes. Malsberg, Ed. illus. Grosset & Dunlap. 1976.
  2. Alexander, Martha. Blackboard Bear. Alexander, Martha, illus. Dial Press. 1969.
  3. Allard, Harry. The Stupids Step Out. Marshall, James, illus. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1974.
  4. Allen, Joan. The Happy Golden ABC. Allen, Joan, illus. Golden Press. 1975.
  5. Amoss, Berthe. Tom In The Middle. Amoss, Berthe, illus. Harper & Rowe. 1970.
  6. Asch, Frank. Elvira Everything. Asch, Frank, illus. Harper & Rowe. 1970.
  7. Averill, Ester. Jenny's Birthday Book. Averill, Esther, illus. 1954.
  8. Banks, Marjorie Ann. How we Celebrate our Fall Holidays. Hawkinson, Lucy & John, illus. Benefic Press. 1961.
  9. Barton, Byron. Applebet Story. Barton, Byron, illus. Viking Press. 1973.
  10. Brennan, Nicholas. Jasper an the Giant. Brennan, Nicholas, illus. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 1970.
  11. Bridwell, Norman. Clifford's Hallowe'en. Bridwell, Norman, illus. Scholastic Book Services. 1967.
  12. Brown, Marcia. Peter Piper's Alphabet. Brown, Marcia, illus. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1959.
  13. Bruna, Dick. I Can Count. Bruna, Dick, illus. Two Continents Publishing Group. 1976.
  14. Buckley, Helen E. The Little Boy and the Birthdays. Galdone, Paul, illus. Lothrop, Lee and Shepard. 1965.
  15. Bursill, Henry. More Hand Shadows. Dover Publishing, Inc. 1971.
  16. Carton, Lonnie C. Daddies. Jacobs, Leslie, illus. Random House. 1963.
  17. Cerf, Bennett A. Bennett Cerf's Book of Riddles. Random House. 1960.
  18. ---. More Riddles. Random House. 1961.
  19. Chorao, Kay. The Repair of Uncle Toe. Chorao, Kay, illus. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. 1972.
  20. Cohen, Miriam. Will I Have a Friend? Hoban, Lillian, illus. Macmillan Co. 1967.
  21. Cole, William. What's Good for a Five-Year-Old? Sorel, Edward, illus. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 1969.
  22. ---. What's Good for a Four-Year-Old? Ungerer, Tomi, illus. Holt, Rinehart. 1967.
  23. DeWitt, Cornelius. The Little Golden ABC. DeWitt, Cornelius, illus. Golden Press. 1976.
  24. Eastman, Phillip D. The Alphabet Book. Eastman, Phillip, illus. Random House. 1974.
  25. Emberly, Ed. Drawing Book of Faces. Emberly Ed, illus. Little, Brown & Co. 1975.
  26. Fitzhugh, Louise and Scoppettone, Sandra. Bang Bang You're Dead. Fitzhugh, Louise, illus. Harper & Rowe. 1969.
  27. Fringuello, Judith. The Day Busy Buzzy Stopped Being Busy. Fringuello, Judith, illus. Troll Associates. 1970.
  28. Gretz, Susanna. Teddy Bears ABC. Gretz, Susanna, illus. Follet Publishing Co. 1975.
  29. Grosset Starter Picture Dictionary. Grosset & Dunlap. 1976.
  30. Hefter, Richard and Moskof, Martin. Everything: An Alphabet, Number, Reading, Counting, & Color Identification Book. Hefter, Richard, illus. Grosset & Dunlap. 1972.
  31. ---. The Great Big Alphabet Picture Book with Lost of Words. Hefter, Richard, illus. Grosset & Dunlap. 1972.
  32. Hitte, Kathryn. Boy, Was I Mad! Mayer, Mercer, illus. Parents Magazine Press. 1969.
  33. Hoban, Russell. Ten What? A Mystery Counting Book. Selig, Sylvie, illus. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1974.
  34. Joslin, Sesyle. What Do You Do, Dear? Sendak, Maurice, illus. Addison -Wesley Publishing Co. 1961.
  35. Kahn, Joan. You Can't Catch Me. Bridgman, Elizabeth, illus. Harper & Rowe. 1976.
  36. Kessler, Leonard. Whose Hat Is That? Grosset & Dunlap. 1974.
  37. Kraus, Robert. How Spider Saved Hallowe'en. Kraus, Robert, illus. Parents Magazine Press. 1973.
  38. Lipkind, William, and Mordvinoff, Nicholas. Russet & The Two Reds. Mordvinoff, Nicholas, illus. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. 1962.
  39. ---. The Two Reds. Mordvinoff, Nicholas, illus. Harcourt, Brace & World. 1950.
  40. Little, Mary. 1 2 3 for the Library. Little, Mary, illus. Atheneum. 1974.
  41. Lobel, Arnold. Martha The Movie Mouse. Lobel, Arnold, illus. Harper & Rowe. 1966.
  42. Lystad, Mary. The Hallowe'en Parade. Szekeres, Cyndy, illus. G.P. Putnam & Sons, 1966.
  43. Marshall, James. George and Martha Encore. Marsha, James, illus. Houghton Mifflin. 1973.
  44. McGinley, Phyllis. Sugar and Spice: The ABC of Being a Girl, Browning, Colleen, illus. Franklin Watts. 1960.
  45. Mendoza, George. The Christmas Tree Alphabet Book. Watts, Bernadette, illus. World Publishing. 1971.
  46. ---. The Marcel Marceau Counting Book. Green, Milton, photographer. Doubleday & Co. 1971.
  47. Merriam, Eve. What Can You Do With a Pocket? Sherman, Harriet, illus. Alfred A. Knopf. 1964.
  48. Miner, Irene. The True Book of Communication. Miner, Irene and Evans, Katherine, illus. Children's Press. 1960.
  49. Montresor, Beni. A for Angel. Montresor, Beni, illus. Alfred A. Knopf. 1969.
  50. Munari, Bruno. The Circus In the Mist.. Munari, Bruno, illus. World Publishing. 1969.
  51. Ogle, Lucille and Thoburn, Tina. The Golden Picture Dictionary. Knight, Hillary, illus. Golden Press. 1976.
  52. O'Neill, Mary. Hailstones and Halibut Bones --Adventures in Color. Weisgaard, Leonard, illus. Doubleday & Co. 1961.
  53. Petersham, Muad and Petersham, Miska. The Rooster Crows: A Book of American Rhymes & Jingles. Petersham, Maud and Petersham, Miska, illus. Doubleday & Co. 1961.
  54. Politi, Leo. Little Leo. Politi, Leo, illus. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1951.
  55. Provensen, Alice and Provensen, Martin. Play on Words.. Provensen, Alice and Provensen, Martin, illus. Random House. 1972.
  56. Raskin, Ellen. Spectacles. Raskin, Ellen, illus. Atheneum. 1968.
  57. Reed, Mary and Osswald, Edith. My First Golden Dictionary. Scarry, Richard, illus. Golden Press. 1963.
  58. Rey, H.A. Curious George Learns the Alphabet. Rey, H.A., illus. Houghton Mifflin. 1963.
  59. Robinson, Shari. Numbers, Signs & Pictures: A First Number Book. Murdocca. Sal, illus. Platt & Munk. 1975.
  60. Scarry, Richard. Richard Scarry's ABC Word Book. Scarry, Richard, illus. Random House. 1971.
  61. ---. Richard Scarry's Best Word Book Ever. Scarry, Richard, illus. Golden Press. 1974.
  62. ---. Richard Scarry's Please & Thank You Book. Scarry, Richard, illus. Random House. 1973.
  63. ---. Richard Scarry's Storybook Dictionary. Scarry, Richard, illus. Golden Press. 1974.
  64. Seiden, Art. Counting Rhymes. Seiden, Art, illus. Grosset & Dunlap. 1959.
  65. Sendak, Maurice. Alligators All Around: An Alphabet. Sendak, Maurice, illus. Harper & Rove. 1962.
  66. Smith, William, J. Ho For a Hat! Chermayeff, Ivan, illus. Atlantic-Little, Brown. 1964.
  67. Steig, William. C D B. Steig, William, illus. Windmill Books & E.P. Dutton. 1968.
  68. Stevenson, Robert L. A Child's Garden of Verses. Fujikawa, Gyo, illus. Grosset & Dunlap. 1977.
  69. Tallon, Robert. Zag: A Search Through The Alphabet. Tallon, Robert, illus. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 1976.
  70. Viorst, Judith. I'll Fix Anthony. Lobel, Arnold, illus. Harper & Rowe. 1969.
  71. Wagner, Peggy. Hurrah for Hats. Eckart, Frances, illus. Children's Press. 1962.
  72. Williams, Jay & Lubell, Winifred. I Wish I Had Another Name. Atheneum. 1962.
  73. Wiseman, Bernard. Hallowe'en With Morris and Boris. Wiseman, Bernard, illus. Dodd, Mead & Co. 1975.
  74. Zolotow, Charlotte. If It Weren't For You. Schecter, Ben, illus. Harper & Row. 1966.

Lesson 3: Stereotyping in Literature
Name:____________________
Title of Book:______________________________________________________________
Author:_____________________________________________________________________
Copyright date:______________ Type of Book:_______________________
Page #:______________________
The context in which you found the stereotype. Describe the illustration and state why it is a stereotype.







Title of Book:______________________________________________________________
Author:_____________________________________________________________________
Copyright date:______________ Type of Book:_______________________
Page #:______________________
The context in which you found the stereotype. Describe the illustration and state why it is a stereotype.







Title of Book:______________________________________________________________
Author:_____________________________________________________________________
Copyright date:______________ Type of Book:_______________________
Page #:______________________
The context in which you found the stereotype. Describe the illustration and state why it is a stereotype.







Title of Book:______________________________________________________________
Author:_____________________________________________________________________
Copyright date:______________ Type of Book:_______________________
Page #:______________________
The context in which you found the stereotype. Describe the illustration and state why it is a stereotype.







The Media's Portrayal of First Nations People
Name:____________________

TEST

1) Give a clear definition of what stereotyping means, and include an example. (2 marks)






2) What can stereotyping lead to? What kind of effect can this have on the person(s) involved? (2 marks)







3) What kind of outside influences can effect how we feel toward other individuals, groups, or things? (5 marks) Example: newspaper











4) What are the long term effects of stereotyping towards a certain group of people? (2 marks)







5) Why might young people have stereotypes of First Nations people from a very young age? (2 marks)







6) Write a paragraph describing a situation where you come across a person who is openly discussing his opinion about First Nations people, and is using negative stereotypes to get his point across. How will you deal with this person without getting angry? What might you say? (7 marks)
















The Media's Portrayal of First Nations People -- Answer Key

1) Give a clear definition of what stereotyping means, and include an example. (2 marks)
Stereotyping is where you label certain people, groups, or things in a certain way. It may be good or bad. You have already formed your impression of who that person, or group is, perhaps without ever meeting them.

2) What can stereotyping lead to? What kind of effect can this have on the person(s) involved? (2 marks)
Stereotyping can lead to discrimination. This can effect the person's ability to get a job as well as effect his/her self-esteem. It can make a person sad and depressed, and they may give up looking for work.

3) What kind of outside influences can effect how we feel toward other individuals, groups, or things? (5 marks)

  1. movies
  2. magazines
  3. advertisements
  4. comics
  5. games and toys
  6. peers
  7. parents
  8. television

4) What are the long term effects of stereotyping towards a certain group of people? (2 marks)
The long term effects of stereotyping towards a certain group of people would be that they may give up hope for finding employment, even though they may love that field of work. Their self-esteem would be low because the person would think that they are not worthy. This could lead to depression or other mental problems. They may begin to actually believe the stereotypes, because that is how they are treated by others. They may also become resentful toward the group that is stereotyping or discriminating against them. This could lead to confrontations or worse.

5) Why might young people have stereotypes of First Nations people from a very young age? (2 marks)
Young people might have early stereotypes of First Nations people due to the books that they read as a youngster, or books read to them by parents or teachers. Many of the books contain illustrations that can create stereotypes in children's minds. Comics, games and toys might have also encouraged stereotyping. In addition, youngsters could have learned these stereotypes from listening to their parents or peers as they were growing up.

6) Write a paragraph describing a situation where you come across a person who is openly discussing his opinion about First Nations people, and is using negative stereotypes to get his point across. How will you deal with this person without getting angry? What might you say? (7 marks)
Accept any reasonable written response. You would be looking for evidence of using the concepts learned during the past few lessons.




Summative Criteria

Criteria Ratings Comments
Student demonstrates an understanding of the important ideas about the topic (through interaction and activities) 4 3 2 1  
Examples, ideas, and detail were offered as solutions to this problem, demonstrating a deeper understanding of the topic 4 3 2 1  
Student considers individual rights and responsibilities; is aware of his/her obligation to create change for such issues as stereotyping 4 3 2 1  
Is able to appreciate another perspective and value its worth 4 3 2 1  
Interesting and relevant information is included in the worksheet entry (concrete examples are given) 4 3 2 1  
Worksheet results demonstrate a clear understanding of concepts studied 4 3 2 1  
Worksheet results were accurate and easy to follow 4 3 2 1  
Group participation and cooperation 4 3 2 1  

Key:
4-Powerful
3-Good
2-Basic
1-Beginning