Teacher Preparation and Sensitivity
UCC Student Projects
Lesson 4: Creation of the Penticton Indian Reserve
Time: 2 x 40 minutes
Topic: Creation of the Penticton Indian Reserve
Rationale: To examine what historical events determined the size and location of the Penticton Indian Reserve.
Materials and Resources
- Between 1856 and 1913, different governments gave and took land from the members of the
Penticton Indian Reserve.
- In 1938, the federal government took more land away, to establish an airport
- Members of the Penticton Indian Reserve had a variety of occupations in early 1900's and continued to provide paid labour to the citizens of Penticton.
Intended Learning Outcomes
- Describe the historical development of various BC communities
- Demonstrate an understanding of timelines
- Analyze the relationship between development of communities and their available natural resources
- Summarize the purposes of municipal, provincial, federal and Aboriginal government
- Demonstrate awareness of the history of Aboriginal peoples' rights
Vocabulary in Material
- A group of government officials with a specific task.
- Provincial government
- The body of elected officials which oversee the administration of a province.
- Federal government
- The body of elected officials which oversee the administration of a country.
Planned Learning Activities
- Re-examine the timeline to 1888 (previously made in Lesson #4).
- Show the vignette 'My Life' from the video, 'How Can I Keep On Singing?'
- Have students compare life for Okanagan First Nation (OFN) people before contact with life of OFN after settlers have been in the valley for over 70 years.
- Use the 1913 Penticton Indian Reserve map with corresponding information from the timeline.
- Once the timeline to 1949 has been constructed, compare the 1913 map with the second map.
- Students will be divided into groups to use timeline notes and all previous information from Lesson #4 to present to class what has occurred to the Penticton Indian Reserve.
Involvement of completion of timeline. Group participation and quality of presentation.
- Challenged students can do illustrations of their understanding.
- Advanced students could do further research projects on higher levels of government involvement.
Other Integration Opportunities
- Language Arts - could be a written presentation.
Resources Used and Supplementary Materials Available
- Ellis, Kathleen. 1950. Tom and Mina Ellis: Notes on their lives by Kathleen W. Ellis. Okanagan Historical Society.
- Okanagan Nation Alliance. 1998. Okanagan Nation Territory Map. www.syilx.org
- Thomson, Duane. 1996. The Response of Okanagan Indians to European Settlement. royal.okanagan.bc.ca
- Union of BC Indian Chiefs. 1913 map of Penticton Indian Reserve from unpublished paper entitled, Cut-Off: The Story of Penticton Indian Lands.
- Webber, J. 1990. Okanagan Sources. Penticton: Theytus Books.
- Armstrong, J. C. 1991. Neekna and Chemai. Penticton: Theytus Books. ISBN 0-919441-15-7
- 'How Food Was Given' from Kou-Skelowh/We Are the People: A Trilogy of OkanaganLegends. 1991. Penticton: Theytus Books. ISBN 0-919441-81-5
Both schoolkits are designed for teachers to use in their classrooms. They contain touchable museum artifacts
with corresponding information, photographs, maps, newspapers, books, suggested projects, and teaching
guides. They are available for one to two week loan-out periods. To book, call the Museum at 490-2451.
Kits are available to teachers outside School District 67. The museum will courier the kits to the borrower;
however, it is the responsibility of the individual teacher to cover all costs of shipping, including insurance.
- First Nations Archeology Kit. Penticton Museum & Archives.
Contains a variety of Okanagan First Nation artifacts: arrowheads, scapers, and bitterroot.
- Local Pioneer History Kit
Contains an assortment of pioneer-related artifacts: iron, buttonhook, and slate.
- 'A Field Trip to the Penticton Indian Reserve'. 1981. Instructional Material Centre, School District 67.
IC'004, Barcode 9988. 30 minutes.
- 'How Can I Keep On Singing?' 2001. Moving Images Video Project. 2408 E. Valley Street Seattle WA 98112 (206) 323-9461. www.movingimages.org
- 'Settling The Okanagan'. 1999. Straight Arrow Productions. Contact: Tracey Jack, c/o En'Owkin Centre. R.R. #2 Site 50, Comp. 08 Penticton, BC V2A 6J7. Phone (250) 493-7181, fax (250) 493-5302. Cost : $35.00
- The story of Wind Woman, as told by Jeannette C. Armstrong in the video, 'How Can I Keep On Singing?' "How the woman of the wind, banished by coyote, carried her eternally howling child tied to her back, as they moved forever through the treetops. Mother crooning to the child. How sometimes she would swoop down in anger, scattering berries off bushes".
1913 Map of Penticton Indian Reserve
Timeline of Significant Events
(to be used with Lesson 3, 4, and 5)
- Fur traders came to the Okanagan Valley.
- Fort Okanagan was established in Washington, the first permanent contact Okanagan First Nation people would have with non-native fur traders.
1813 - 1821
- Fort Kamloops, Fort Okanagan, and Spokane House (operated by the North West Company) were the principal fur trading posts used by the Okanagan First Nation.
1832, 1836, 1857
- Outbreaks of the smallpox in the Okanagan Valley.
- Contagious diseases had the most impact on First Nation populations.
- Epidemics decimated whole villages.
- The Governor of BC, Sir James Douglas, made agreements with Okanagan village chiefs that theycould have reserves of land of any size and location they wanted. This also included hunting andfishing territory, as well as grazing areas and access to water. The original Penticton Indian Reserve(PIR) included everything between Skaha and Okanagan Lake and both sides of the valley.
- Residential schools were established by Oblate missionaries for Secwepemc (Shuswap) and Okanaganchildren.
- Also the year that the Penticton Indian Reserve (PIR) was reduced in size by the local Justice of the Peace, Mr. J.C. Haynes, who thought the original PIR was too large.
- Thomas Ellis planted the first orchard. All ranch help were Okanagan First Nation people. T. Ellis' daughter, Kathleen Ellis, said that, "Work both indoors and [outdoors] could not have been carried on without their help". (p.105 Okan. Hist. Society, 1950)
- Indoors: Okanagan First Nation women and girls learned to cook on iron stoves, launder, make soap, sew with steel needles and sewing machines.
- Outdoors: Okanagan men rode range, cut hay in the summer, and clear land. They learned to plow, use an axe and saw, and how to build log cabins.
- During the early development of Penticton, Okanagan First Nation people supplied horses for delivery work and orchard cultivation. They also supplied cordwood, so settlers could heat their homes and Okanagan First Nation women made work gloves out of buckskin.
- The Indian Reserve Commission was established to enlarge reserves.
Nov. 24, 1877
- Penticton Indian Reserve No. 1 allotted by the Joint Reserve Commission.
- First Nation people could not buy land off the reserve.
- A permanent mission was established on the Penticton Indian Reserve (PIR) by Father Pandosy, anOblate priest.
- Members of the Penticton Indian Reserve (PIR) began living in log houses, rather than the traditional pit houses.
- The McKenna-McBride Royal Commission was set up to settle a dispute between the Federal and Provincial governments. Both governments claimed they 'owned' reserve land. The provincial government protested the amount of land that was set aside as reserves.
- As a result of the provincial government protests, The Penticton Indian Reserve No. 1 was reduced by 14, 060 acres and two smaller reserves, No. 2 and 2A were taken away altogether. Some of the land taken consisted of hay fields, gardens, orchards, valuable grazing land, and timberland.
- Members of the Penticton Indian Reserve were farmers and grew fruit. They continued to fish and hunt. Some worked on building roads, while others were cowboys and worked for ranchers.
- Kettle Valley Railroad (KVR) tracks run through the Penticton Indian Reserve.
- An 'Indian Day School' established on the Penticton Indian Reserve for primary students. Olderstudents continued to attend residential schools in Kamloops and Cranbrook BC.
- Federal Government of Canada established an airport on the Penticton Indian Reservewhich the government expands in 1949 (takes more PIR land).
1945 - 1960
- Okanagan First Nation people migrated seasonally to Washington, to work in the orchards.
- In May, PIR community hall opened.
- Okanagan First Nation children stopped attending residential schools Sunshine Preschool established.
- Houses built on Westhills Drive.
- Gun club renovated and turned into Penticton Indian Band Administration Office.
- Penticton Indian Band (PIB) Volunteer Firefighter Program is established. Firefighters receive apumper truck and fire hall.
- Outma Squil'xw Cultural School is established. It is a band operated school for First Nation students living on reserve. Grades Pre-K to Grade 5.
- Penticton Indian Band (PIB) Tribal Police established.
- Band-owned company Westhills Aggregate Limited is created. Westhills Aggregates Ltd. sells gravel, landscaping rocks, and topsoil.
- Penticton Indian Band Education Centre established. The Pia'sulaxw Centre offers a high school program for grades 7 to 12, upgrading for adults, and computer literacy courses.
- The En'Owkin Centre (est. 1981) moves onto the Penticton Indian Reserve. The En'Owkin offers adult college courses in Adult Basic Education, Okanagan Language Training, Creative Writing, and Fine Arts. it also houses Canada's original First Nation Publishing Company -- Theytus Books.
Penticton Indian Reserve after 1949
|Student demonstrates an understanding of time lines and progression (through interactionand activities)
|Student demonstrates anunderstanding of therelationship whichAboriginal people have hadto the land and how their traditional technology isclosely connectedto these natural resources
|Student can identify theeconomic and technological exchange between Aboriginal and non-nativepeople over time
|Communicates in a clear,easy to understand message
|Uses information from avariety of resources
|Uses different formats of representing to share ideas (oral, written, visual)
|Provides accurate information
|Group participationand cooperation